The majority of ligations after failed indomethacin treatment (n=75) were performed due to persistent ventilatory requirements in isolation (n=58). Contraindications to indomethacin (n=13), pulmonary hemorrhage (n=2) and congestive heart failure (n=2) were the other indications for ligation in this group. The early ligation (<14 days) subgroup spent more time on the ventilator (P<0.001) and in the NICU (P<0.002) in comparison with the late ligation (>14 days) subgroup (data not shown).
In 37 of the 41 deaths, the PDA was patent at the time of death. One death occurred during surgical ligation (an avulsion of the PDA from the aorta during surgery). It was not possible to determine whether any of the other deaths were clearly associated with either indomethacin or ligation retrospectively.
Of the 44 infants in the ‘no further treatment’ situation, 24 infants were alive at discharge, while 19 had died with a persisting PDA and one patient was lost to follow-up due to transfer to another NICU. In these 24 survivors, the PDA had spontaneously closed in 13 infants with 11 of these confirmed on echocardiogram. The median age at time of echocardiographically confirmed closure was 42 days (range 28 to 56 days). You will always be able to buy the required amount of medicine you need at this wonderful and fully licensed pharmacy that can take good care of you, no matter if you need levitra professional sale cialis professional at large amounts or just a bit of it to finish your treatment.