In the male hamster, pheromonal and hormonal cues must be integrated in the MA and/or BNST in order for mating to occur. The relevant pheromonal signals are usually detected by the VNO, although the main olfactory epithelium-main olfactory bulb (MOE-MOB) olfactory projection to the hypothalamus may also contribute to sexual arousal and performance. flovent inhaler
Considerably less research on pheromonal communication has been carried out using carnivores or other nonrodent mammals. The available studies have generally implicated the MOE-MOB olfactory system in responses to pheromones. For example, the male pig, an ungulate, produces a steroidal pheromone, androsterone, that elicits approach behaviors as well as receptive immobility in estrous sows. Although the pig possesses a VNO and AOB, females’ behavioral responses to androsterone seem to be mediated by the MOE-MOB projection to the forebrain. In the ferret, a carnivore, pheromones derived from the urine as well as anal and sebaceous gland secretions attract heterosexual conspecifics. A VNO and associated AOB have been identified in the ferret. However, in the ferret as in other carnivores with a VNO and AOB, the VNO and AOB are proportionately smaller than in rodent and ungulate species.