Fiber and Swann observed significant increments in neuronal Fos-IR in both the MOB and the AOB of male hamsters 1 h after exposure to female hamster vaginal secretions. Surgical removal of the VNO caused significant deficits in the sexual behavior of male hamsters, provided animals were not sexually experienced. However, complete elimination of mating in sexually experienced hamsters was only achieved when chemosensory inputs from both the VNO and the MOE were eliminated. antibiotic levaquin
This suggests that both the VNO-AOB and the MOE-MOB projections to the hypothalamus are required in order for pheromones to facilitate sexual arousal in this rodent species. Additional examples of the detection and processing of pheromones by the MOE-MOB system are found in the opossum and domestic pig. Male opossums, with their VNOs removed and their MOE intact, still discriminated between their own scent marks and those left by a conspecific. Estrous sows showed proceptive and receptive sexual responses to the male’s pheromone, androsterone, after the VNO was occluded. Each of these results implies that phero-mones affected behavior after detection and processing by the MOE-MOB olfactory pathway.