Data presented in the current paper clearly establish that testosterone is a primary metabolic product of the medullary/interstitial tissues resulting in elevated plasma concentrations of this steroid. In accordance with the preceding scenario, Gorman and Stone note that, unlike other female insectivores (e.g., shrews), female T. europaea do not increase the size of their territories during the breeding season (pp. 93-94). These moles appear to maintain a sufficiently large territory year-round to deal with the increased energetic demands of lactation. flovent inhaler
Both sexes expend significant energy in digging tunnels that form pitfall traps for earthworms, the major component of their diet. Consequently, individuals defend their tunnels and food supply aggressively. However, this aggression must be reduced in females during the short period of estrus to allow mating. Further research will be required to determine whether female moles with high testosterone concentrations are more successful in aggressive encounters when establishing/maintaining such territories outside of the breeding season, and whether the androgens play a role in the formation of the penile clitoris.