Polygraphic recordings were scored following the international criteria of Rechtschaffen and Kales for sleep staging and using the international definitions of sleep apnea, obstructive, mixed, and central apnea. The most negative inspiratory Pes was identified during each recording. Also, using a computer algorithm developed conjointly by the Stanford University Department of Engineering and the Stanford Sleep Disorders Center, the Pes of each breath during nocturnal sleep was analyzed. Artifact-associated breaths are automatically removed from analysis, but >5,000 breaths are usually available for analysis. The inspiratory Pes nadir measurement, at the mean 95th percentile, was calculated using this algorithm.
Paired t tests were used to determine whether changes from the baseline to the final measurements were significant. Repeated measures analysis of variance, using statistical contrasts to perform pairwise comparisons, were used in comparisons of polysomnographic measures, all of which were collected at three points. Pearson correlations were used to evaluate the association between continuous variables. Results are expressed as mean ±SD, and they were generated using a computerized statistical package (SAS; Cary, NC). buy risnia 2 mg
Twenty-five patients fulfilled the initial acceptance criteria for enrollment in this study. Three of this original group were deleted by the primary investigator due to the following reasons. One was unable to continue after the second treatment due to marital disharmony that made any systematic follow-up impossible. The second advised us on his first visit for treatment that the sight of a needle caused fainting and was asked not to continue for safety reasons. The last presented for the first treatment with labile hypertension, previously undetected, and was deleted from the study. These three patients were not significantly different in snoring, RDI, and baseline data from the rest of the treatment group. The remaining 22 patients included 18 men and 4 women. The mean age was 45.3±9.1 years, and the group was 81.2% male with a mean pretreatment BMI (kg/m2) of 27.4±3.72. Fifty percent of the group had previously undergone a tonsillectomy in childhood. Neck circumference was a mean of 39.5 ±3.72 cm.