A lateral radiographic cephalometric head film was taken prior to and after completion of RFe treatment. This was done to assess bony and soft-tissues measurements for baseline anthropometric data, inclusion and exclusion purposes, and to compare changes (shrinkage) in the soft palate length and width after treatment. The traditional bony and soft-tissue measurements to evaluate the airway in SDB included the following: sella nasion point A angle (SNA) (82°±20); SNB (80°±2°); MP-H (15.4±3 mm); PAS (11 ±1 mm); length of soft palate from posterior nasal spine to uvula (PNS-P) (37±3 mm); and palatal width (PW).
Infrared Thermal Imaging
Digital infrared thermography was used to document tissue thermal gradients to safely facilitate optimum maximum temperatures for treatment. Each subject who underwent this test procedure was digitally scanned by an infrared camera during the RF treatment and surface temperature gradients were evaluated (Thermotest Inc; San Rafael, Calif).
Questionnaires and Visual Analog Scales
To minimize the possibility of researcher-introduced bias, the administration protocol for all questionnaires and visual analog scales (VAS) was standardized. Each subject filled out the following questionnaires and scales and then returned them prior to being inteniewed, examined, or treated. These parameters were assessed and documented before each treatment, the day after treatment, at 2 to 3 days after treatment and at the completion of each treatment session, which was usually at 3 to 4 weeks. avandia online
Epworth Sleepiness Scale
An Epwrorth sleepiness scale (ESS) was completed at baseline and at each treatment or follow-up visit. The baseline score was compared with the final score after healing. All interim scores were used to assess trends in sleepiness. The ESS reflected the chance of dozing in specific situations as well as daytime sleepiness.
Visual Analog Scales
Standard 10-cm VASs with anchors such as “no pain” and “excruciating or intense pain” were used to evaluate each subject’s complaints and assessments of study variables that included the following.