Greater Hepatic Vulnerability after Alcohol Intake: RESULTS

8 Jan
2010

Table 1 shows the selected characteristics of the study participants stratified by gender and race. In this sample, for both men and women, the African Americans were significantly older, less educated, and had a significantly higher mean value of GGT than the whites. The other two enzymes were not significantly different between the two racial groups, except for ALT, which was significantly higher among white men than among African-American men. With regard to drinking status in both sexes, whites showed a higher prevalence of current drinkers compared with African Americans, whereas for beverage-specific recent (past 30 days) consumption of alcohol, we found that, on the average, white men consumed significantly more wine and beer than African-American men. For liquor consumption, while both between-race comparisons did not reach statistical significance, in both sexes African Americans reported higher consumption than whites. For women, the only significant difference was detected for wine consumption with white women reporting higher intake than African-American counterparts. The two racial groups did not significantly differ for total alcohol use and for the usual consumption of alcohol per drinking day (measure of intensity of consumption).

Table 1. Characteristics of Participants by Gender and Race. Erie and Niagara Counties, New York, 1995-2001 (n=3,304)
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Variable (unit)Women, n=1,755Men, n=1,549
African Americans

Caucasians

African Americans

Caucasians

n=119

n=1,636

n=122

n=1,427

Mean (SD*)

Mean (SD*)

P Value#

Mean (SD*)

Mean (SD*)

P Value#

Age (years)62.7 (11.7)

57.1 (11.6)

0.000

65.4 (11.3)

59.4 (12.1)

0.000

Education (years)12.6 (2.2)

13.4 (2.4)

0.000

12.0 (2.7)

13.8 (2.6)

0.000

Body mass Index31.2 (6.9)

28.0 (6.3)

0.001

27.7 (4.7)

28.3 (4.5)

0.217

Pack years of smoking 9.9 (13.5)

10.5 (17.3)

0.649

19.5 (19.5)

18.7 (23.6)

0.668

AST (U/L)23.8 (15.4)

23.0 (7.3)

0.937

25.8 (9.8)

25.8 (10.2)

0.952

ALT (U/L)16.1 (10.4)

16.2 (8.9)

0.631

20.0 (15.0)

22.0 (12.9)

0.007

GGT (U/L)38.9 (31.0)

28.8 (34.6)

0.000

52.1 (49.0)

41.9 (45.6)

0.002

Past 30 Days AlcoholIntake
Total alcohol
(ounces)3.5 (15.3)

4.9 (10.1)

0.310

7.6 (18.0)

13.4 (27.9)

0.001

Beer (ounces)1.3 (5.8)

1.2 (4.9)

0.930

2.0 (5.7)

6.4(14.9)

0.000

Wine (ounces)0.5 (2.3)

2.5 (6.6)

0.000

0.8 (2.8)

2.6 (8.1)

0.000

Liquor (ounces)1.7 (14.0)

1.1 (5.3)

0.664

4.8 (16.3)

4.4 (22.3)

0.831

Usual ounces of
alcohol per drinking
day0.5 (2.4)

0.6 (0.7)

0.849

0.9 (1.8)

1.0 (1.4)

0.318

%

%

%

%

Smoking Status
Never Smokers38.6

50.0

23.0

35.3

Former Smokers37.0

35.6

54.0

50.8

Current Smokers24.4

14.4

0.006

23.0

13.9

0.003

Drinking Status
Lifetime abstainers28.6

13.1

7.4

3.4

Noncurrent drinkers40.3

24.6

46.7

22.2

Current drinkers31.1

62.3

0.000

45.9

74.4

0.000

Table 2 displays the characteristics of participants according to drinking status (lifetime abstainers, former drinkers, and current drinkers) for the total sample stratified by race. The gender distribution was significantly different between the two races only among former drinkers with a significantly higher prevalence of males in African Americans, compared with Caucasians. While AST and ALT mean values were not significantly different between the two groups, African Americans exhibited a significantly higher mean value of GGT than Caucasians in all three categories of drinking. Among current drinkers, average levels of total recent intake of alcohol were not significantly different between the two races. However, African Americans exhibited a significantly higher consumption of liquor, while Caucasians consumed more wine. African Americans also reported a significantly higher usual consumption of alcohol per drinking day. After adjustment for covariates (age, sex, education, body mass index, and total pack years of smoking), in all categories of drinking status, African Americans constantly exhibited signifi-cantly higher GGT mean values than Caucasians, with the largest difference in GGT mean values between the two racial groups among current drinkers compared to the other two categories of drinking status (lifetime abstainers and former drinkers). The further adjustment only in current drinkers for total amount of alcohol consumed in the past 30 days did not substantially modify these results. When data were analyzed by gender, the results were remarkably consistent showing similar pattern of association between GGT and race in the three drinking categories (lifetime abstainers, former drinkers, current drinkers) for both unadjusted and adjusted data (data not shown). silagra tablets

Table 2. Characteristics of Participants by Drinking Status and Race. Erie and Niagara Counties, New York, 1995-2001 (n=3,304)

Variable (Unit)Lifetime Abstainers (n=307)Noncurrent Drinkers (n=823)

Current Drinkers (n=2,174)

AAs n=43Cs n=264

AAs n=105

Cs n=718AAs n=93Cs n=2,081

Mean (SD)Mean (SD) P Value

Mean (SD) Mean (SD) P Value

Mean (SD) Mean (SD) P Value
Age (years]

67.9 (9.0)

60.7 (11.7)

0.000

63.1 (12.2)

59.3(11.9)

0.003

63.3(11.6)

57.4 (11.9)

0.000

Education (years)

12.5 (2.4)

13.2 (2.4)

0.115

11.7 (2.4)

13.0 (2.4)

0.000

12.7 (2.5)

13.8 (2.5)

0.000

Body mass index

31.1 (6.5)

28.8 (6.3)

0.033

30.1 (6.4)

29.1 (6.5)

0.164

28.0 (5.3)

27.7 (5.0)

0.514

Pack years of smoking

3.4 (7.5)

6.0(15.2)

0.086

16.9(18.5)

18.2 (24.1)

0.510

17.6 (17.6)

14.0(19.9)

0.059

AST (U/L)

23.6 (6.8)

23.8 (8.6)

0.928

23.5 (7.6)

23.5 (8.0)

0.966

26.9 (18.5)

24.6 (9.2)

0.241

ALT (U/L)

17.2(11.4)

17.1 (9.9)

0.883

17.0 (9.9)

18.6 (11.7)

0.090

19.7 (16.5)

19.3(11.3)

0.511

GGT (U/L)

39.4 (42.2)

28.4 (28.2)

0.000

38.7 (24.8)

34.5 (45.3)

0.000

56.1 (53.1)

35.8 (40.2)

0.000

Past 30 days alcohol intake
Total alcohol (ounces)         —

___

_

___

14.3 (24.7)

13.1 (24.2)

0.626

Beer (ounces)    —

4.3 (8.7)

5.4(13.1)

0.249

Wine (ounces)   —

1.6 (4.0)

3.8 (8.6)

0.000

Liquor (ounces) —

8.4 (23.7)

3.9 (19.0)

0.074

Usual ounces of alcohol per drinking day     —

1.8 (3.1)

1.1 (1.2)

0.044

Gender Distribution (%)
Females

79.1

81.4

45.7

56.0

39.8

49.0

Males

20.9

18.6

0.713

54.3

44.0

0.048

60.2

51.0

0.083

Smoking Status (%)
Never smokers 69.8

76.9

24.8

38.6

19.4

40.5

Former smokers 20.9

17.0

52.3

44.6

49.4

45.2

Current smokers 9.3

6.1

0.560

22.9

16.8

0.020

31.2

14.3

0.000

AST (U/L)*

22.8

23.9

0.389

23.1

23.6

0.537

26.6

24.6

0.390

ALT (U/L)*

16.8

17.2

0.747

16.6

18.6

0.021

19.8

19.2

0.321

GGT (U/L)*

36.5

28.8

0.011

37.0

34.8

0.012

54.4

35.9

0.000

AST (U/L)#

26.6

24.6

0.393

ALT (U/L)#

19.8

19.2

0.314

GGT (U/L)#

54.3

35.9

0.000

* Adjusted for age, sex, education (years), body mass index, and total pack-years of smoking; # Adjusted for age, sex, education (years), body mass index, total pack-years of smoking, and total current (past 30 days) alcohol consumption; AAs: African Americans; Cs: Caucasians

Table 3 shows the mean AST, ALT, and GGT values for both races by tertiles of total ounces of alcohol consumed in the past 30 days among current drinkers after adjustment for age, sex, education, body mass index, and total pack years of smoking. For GGT, African Americans showed significantly higher average levels in each tertile compared to Caucasians; however, differences in GGT mean values between the two racial groups tended to amplify with increasing tertiles of alcohol consumption (8.8, 11.9, and 34.6, respectively). This trend toward higher ethnic differences in the third tertile of drinkers is evident for AST and ALT, even though none of the differences in enzyme average levels between the two groups reached statistical significance.

Table 3. Mean* AST, ALT, GGT in Two Racial Groups by Tertiles of Total Ounces of Alcohol in the Past 30 Days. Erie and Niagara Counties, New York, 1995-2001

AAsCs

Difference in Means

Std. ErrorSignificance
n=93n=2,081

Between Races

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N

30

693

Average ounces of total alcohol intake in the past 30 days

1.0 (0.2-1.6)

1.1 (0.1-2.1)

AST (U/L)

24.2

23.5

0.7

1.2

0.673

ALT (U/L)

16.4

17.9

-1.5

1.7

0.281

GGT (U/L)

39.0

30.2

8.8

4.4

0.002

// fertile
N

32

692

Average ounces of total alcohol intake in the past 30 days

4.6 (1.9-10.3)

5.5 (2.1-11.6)

AST (U/L)

22.8

23.9

-1.1

1.4

0.462

ALT (U/L)

16.7

18.9

-2.2

1.9

0.103

GGT (U/L)

43.7

31.8

11.9

5.5

0.005

/// fertile
N

31

696

Average ounces of total alcohol intake in the past 30 days

37.2 (11.7-151.8)

32.5 (11.7-591.1)

AST (U/L)

32.6

26.4

6.2

2.4

0.141

ALT (U/L)

25.9

21.0

4.9

2.3

0.455

GGT (U/L)

80.2

45.6

34.6

10.5

0.000

* Adjusted for age, sex, education (years), BMI, and total pack-years of smoking; # Average total
alcohol intake (oz./30 days) in each fertile and range intertertiles in brackets.
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