Recent progress in the in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and in vitro development (IVD) in pig oocytes has made it possible to produce embryos (blastocysts) from oocytes collected from antral follicles of slaughterhouse ovaries. Transfer of these embryos has resulted in the birth of piglets, which indicates that viable embryos can be produced under in vitro conditions. However, efficiency is still low, and many embryos do not develop to term. Blastocysts produced in vitro have a small number of cells, which is considered to be the main reason for embryo loss after transfer. buy cipro
Although the conditions for IVM of oocytes significantly affect the quality of embryos, the conditions for IVD may also affect the quality of embryos because in vitro-produced 1-cell embryos were of obviously high quality (as evaluated by cell number in blastocysts) if they were transferred to oviducts of animals. Moreover, although most fertilized oocytes developed to the 2- to 4-cell stage, the proportion of blastocyst formation in culture was low. It is well-known that the regulated dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton is important for maintenance of specialized structures and functions in cells.