Interestingly, recently it has been found that addition of glutathione during the sperm-oocyte reaction and embryo culture significantly improved blastocyst formation without increasing intracellular glutathione. It is possible that glutathione can also reduce ROS in the culture medium and thus protect the embryos against oxidative stress. It was also found that glutathione was present in oviduct secretions. Put together, these results indicate that both intracellular and extracellular glutathione are important for normal embryo development, not only during oocyte maturation, but also during sperm-oocyte interaction and early embryo development. antibiotics levaquin
Actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton. During oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo development, the polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments is an important process. Early studies indicated that actin filaments were responsible for maintenance of the meiotic spindle, spindle rotation, polar body release, pronuclear migration, and mitotic cleavage. Abnormal actin filament distribution has been observed in in vitro-matured and -fertilized pig oocytes.