Anticonvulsant mood stabilizers such as valproic acid (divalproex [Abbott]) have long been used to treat BDD, especially in patients with agitation, aggression, mood lability, disinhibition, and manic-like symptoms. Studies of valproic acid have revealed a mixed picture.
The atypical (“second-generation”) antipsychotic agents were introduced beginning in the 1990s and have largely supplanted the older, typical antipsychotic medications. The older drugs such as haloperidol decanoate (Haldol, Ortho-McNeil) and (GlaxoSmithKline) caused parkinsonian side effects (e.g., rigidity and tremor). The designation “atypical” refers to the relative lack of these extrapyramidal side effects with these medications.
Patients with dementia may experience many symptoms, usually in the context of an incurable disease. Because treatment cannot address all of these symptoms, it is important to have a specific goal or goals in mind when therapy is initiated.
Introduction This article discusses the assessment and treatment of BDD. Although the primary focus is on pharmacological therapy, it should be recognized that medications should be considered only after environmental and behavioral management are optimized.
Ganciclovir, a synthetic acyclic nucleotide analog of guanine, is phosphorylated to a triphosphate within the cell and acts as an inhibitor of viral DNA synthesis. Preliminary data have shown ganciclovir effective in the treatment of symptomatic congenital CMV infection. A phase II study with ganciclovir showed hearing improvement or stabilization in five of 30 infants […]
CMV infection can be diagnosed by isolation of the virus from the urine or saliva within the first three weeks of life. This can be accomplished by traditional virus culture methods which may take one to two weeks to obtain a result or rapid culture methods (“shell vial assay”) using centrifugation to enhance infectivity and […]
CMV is the largest and most complex member of the Herpesviridae family of DNA viruses. The genome is composed of a linear double-stranded DNA, approximately 240 kilobases in size (150xl0 daltons), and is capable of isomer-ization. The genome has been completely sequenced and shown to contain non-overlapping open-reading frames for more than 200 potentially immunologic […]