TPV is given with ritonavir to increase its therapeutic concentration, thereby inhibiting HIV replication. In clinical studies, TPV was an inhibitor of CYP 1A2, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19, and CYP 2D6, but the net effect in vivo is not known. When given with 200 mg of ritonavir, TPV is an inhibitor of CYP 3A4, and […]
The FDA’s approval of TPV was based on two randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter phase 3 clinical trials, RESIST-1 and RESIST-2 (Randomized Evaluation of Strategic Intervention in Multidrug-Resistant Patients with Tipranavir). The trials enrolled a combined 1,159 triple antiretroviral class-experienced patients with a history of at least two prior PI-based antiretroviral regimens, including one therapeutic failure […]
Protease inhibitors work at the last stage of the viral reproduction cycle. TPV is an inhibitor of the HIV-1 protease, thereby preventing cleavage of the polyprotein. This inhibition leads to the production of an immature, noninfec-tious virus.
INTRODUCTION Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has augmented the treatment and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. The inclusion of protease inhibitors (PIs) with a HAART regimen has been responsible for dramatic reductions in morbidity and mortality in cases of advanced infection. It is estimated that nearly 40 million people worldwide are infected with […]
This literature review adds key points to the dialogue about men on the down-low. First, black MSM are more likely than MSM of other races and ethnicities to identify as bisexual and to be bisexually active. Second, heterosexual identity and corresponding sexual behavior among black men are sometimes incon-gruent, but this discordance is not exclusive […]
Nondisclosure of Homosexual Behavior or Bisexual Identity Disclosure of homosexual identity or behavior among black MSM was addressed in five articles and one conference abstract. A Chicago-based sample of 208 black and 142 white bisexually active men found that, compared with white MSM, black MSM were significantly more likely to keep their same-sex behavior from […]
Prevalence of Bisexuality among Black Men Studies clearly show that black MSM are more likely than MSM of other races and ethnicities to identify themselves as bisexual and to be bisexually active.101217 Most studies that recruited black bisexual men assessed bisexuality according to self-reported behavior rather than self-identifica-tion. Among black MSM in 18 studies, from […]