Figure 2 shows the components of outward current in an atrial myocyte. The total membrane current activated with clamp pulses from a holding potential of -80 mV to +60 mV consisted of a large, rapidly activating outward current, which inactivated within the 300 ms long clamp step; however, a substantial sustained current component remained activated at the end of the clamp step. When the previously suggested protocol was used to inactivate most of the transient current component by holding the membrane at -20 mV , a rapidly activating outward current appeared, which hardly inactivated at all. Because of its sustained nature, this current is termed Iso, or sustained outward current. Subtraction of Iso from the total current yielded a pure Ito. The Iso and Ito current components can be distinguished not only on the basis of their different potentials of half maximal inactivation, but also due to their different sensitivity to 4-amino-pyridine: Iso is almost 100 times as sensitive as Ito to 4-ami-nopyridine .
Figure 2 Components of outward current in an atrial myocyte. A Total membrane current activated during a 300 ms long clamp step from a holding potential of-80mV to +60 mV; sodium current was inactivated by a 30 ms long prepulse to-40mV B Sustained outward current (Iso) activated during a 300 ms long clamp step to +60 mVfrom a holding potential of-20 mV C Difference current (transient outward current, Ito) obtained by subtracting sustained outward current from total current (A-B). Arrowheads indicate zero current level
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